Structural Organisation of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Facts About Neurones
In many cases, when an endocrine gland releases a hormone, it is upon request of some controlling organ, which, at the end of the hierarchical chain, is always the brain. But who tells the brain to tell the hypothalamus (the so called master gland), to tell the hypophisis to tell the breasts (via the secretion of oxytocin) to secrete milk? The sensory cells (receptors) that detect the baby's suckling do. They send nerve impulses to the brain informing of this event, and then the brain starts the chain of orders.
There are also cases in which it is the same gland that produces the hormone the one that detects the stimulus that will finally lead to the secretion of the hormone. It is the pancreas itself the organ that learns about the rise of the level of sugar in blood, and responds to it by secreting insulin. And if the pancreas notices a low level of glucose in blood, it, without asking anyone, will release glucagon, which will help to take more glucose into the blood. Insulin and glucagon are antagonist hormones, because they do opposite things. The have in common who secretes them (the pancreas) and their target organs (chiefly the liver and the muscles).
As more glucose in blood leads to less glucose in blood (through the action of the insulin) and less glucose in blood leads to more glucose in blood (via glucagon), these two are examples of negative feedback in endocrine control. But secreting milk when the baby suckles leads to keep on secreting more milk: the stimulus empowers itself, and this is called positive feedback.
The nervous system.To understand the human nervous system, with a special emphasis on the central nervous system. You can print the lesson text and read a glossary. Interactive lesson at Skoool.co.uk. (N.B.: In case your browser freezes, use Firefox and click on "Block Script" when asked).
Nervous system and the senses.Great presentation covering the role of the nervous system, its organs, its regions, the types of neurones, the synapse, reflexes and human senses.
The nervous system at Web-books.com.Very good overall view, with images and text, on the nervous system: cells, organs and organization. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of neurological diseases.
The nervous system at Faqs.org.Another wide overall view, with text and images, on the neurons, the organs of the nervous system and their functions, the nervous disorders, a glossary and additional readings.
Neuroscience for kids.Absolutely comprehensive site to learn everything about the neurones, the nervous system, the brain habilities, drugs, diseases… With an extensive table of contents at the top.
The nervous system.Lots of info and images on the nervous system.
The brain from top to bottom.Amazing resource that covers all sorts of topics related to the human brain: organisation, memory, emotions, senses, body movement... All of them in three different levels of deepness.
100 fascinating facts you never knew about the human brain.How it works, how it develops, what it controls, how it affects sleep, dreams and memory, and more.
The brain museum.Lots of images of both the whole brain and of cross-sections of it. Through the left menu you can access images of brains of many other mammals.
Brain pictures.A set of 9 pictures that tell different stories about the way your nervous system works.
Inside Bill Moorier's head.In his own words: "In September 2009 my doctor recommended an MRI to rule-out a couple of potential conditions. The scan came back completely normal, which was a great relief! I decided to do something with the images, and spent a fun weekend writing this MRI explorer".
5 ways your brain is messing with your head.It turns out that the ways in which your head is being truly messed up are not coming from advertisers, politicians or magicians: they are coming from inside.
Right Brain vs. Left Brain.The test will not tell you what you're most likely to vote when you're 18, but you may want to know if you are the logical or the intuitive type.
Anatomy of the spine.Video that shows the anatomy of the human spinal column.
How scratching can stop an itch.A scientific study has discovered why scratching helps relieve the irritation of an itch.
The special senses at Faqs.org.Good and wide overview, with text and images, on the eye, the ear, the sense of smell, the sense of taste, and the way they all work. Also with a description af the main sensorial pathologies, a glossary and additional readings.
KEWL - Our five senses.Basic introduction to vision, hearing, smell, touch and taste.
The eye.Drag and drop labelling activity of the main parts of the eye.
Anatomy of the eye.Highly informative interactive animation to learn the parts of the eye and their functions.
The eye at Web-books.com.A first overview on the eye and its parts. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of eye diseases.
Magenta ain't a colour.Which comes to prove that your brain is tricking you. Learn the difference between reality and the image your brain composes of it through this interesting article on colours.
The ear.Drag and drop labelling activity of the main parts of the ear.
The ear.Simple interactive activity to help you learn the functions of the parts of the ear.
The ear at Web-books.com.Very good overall view, with images and text, on the ear, its sections and its functions. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of ear diseases.
The skin at Web-books.com.Very good overall view, with images and text, on the skin and all its layers. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of skin diseases.
Endocrine system.Great presentation on the endocrine system, its glands, how they work and their role in the control of emergency responses, glucose level in blood, fluid levels in blood and tissues and the menstrual cycle.
The endocrine system at Web-books.com.Very good overall view, with images and text, on the endocrine glands and their hormones. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of endocrine diseases.
The endocrine system at Faqs.org.Another wide overall view, with text and images, on all the endocrine glands and the way they work, the hormones and their effects, the endocrine disorders, a glossary and additional readings.
The endocrine system.To dig deeper, visit this website with lots of info and images on the endocrine system.
Sorry, you're just not my (testosterone's) type.Learn how hormones condition the type of person to which you are attracted.
Human homeostasis.Great presentation on the meaning of homeostasis, the anatomy and functions of the urinary system, its role and the endocrine system role in controlling urea, salt and water levels in the body, the structure and function of the skin and its role in controlling body temperature.
eSkeletons.eSkeletons isn't only about understanding human anatomy. It is an interactive comparative tool that enables a student to view the bones of both human and non-human primates and to learn more about them. Selecting the human skeleton on the homepage starts the anatomical study. A mouseover on the skeleton selects a specific bone for a closer look.
The muscular system at Web-books.com.A first overview on the types of muscular tissues. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of muscle diseases.
The muscular system at Faqs.org.A wide and good overall view, with text and images, on the muscular system, the muscular cells, the main muscles, and the way they all work. Also with a description of the main muscular disorders, a glossary and additional readings.
The skeletal system at Web-books.com.A first overview on the types of bone tissues and types of bones. The left menu contains a link to a wide series of bone diseases.
The skeletal system at Faqs.org.A wide and good overall view, with text and images, on the skeletal system, the main bones, the joints, and the way they all work. Also with a description of the main skeletal disorders, a glossary and additional readings.
The muscular and skeletal systems.To dig deeper, visit this website with lots of info and images on the muscular and skeletal systems.
How bones work.To know almost everything about your skeleton, bones, joints, their diseases...
Antagonistic pairs.Simple dragging activity to watch the antagonistic behaviour of the brachial biceps and triceps.
Ball and socket joint.Move the femur in the hip joint forwards and backwards as well as from side to side by moving the trackball.
Learn the bones.Interactive activity to check your knoledge on the human skeleton.
Science Helpdesk is a website meant to help on developing the scientific contents of the Bilingual Project Integrated Curriculum designed by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia and the British Council.
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8 April 2013
Printed: 26 May 2013
Science Helpdesk by Arturo J. Murias is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Spain License.