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Contents

ESO 1. Science

1. The Earth in the Universe
  • The Astronomy across time.
  • Dimensions and distances in Astronomy.
  • Galaxies and clusters. The Milky Way and the Local Group.
  • The Stars and the constellations.
  • The Solar System: the Sun, the planets, the dwarf planets and the SSSBs.
  • The movements of the Earth and their effects.
  • The Moon and its phases.
  • The eclipses.
  • The Ecosphere.
2. Matter
  • Matter, quantities, measuring devices and the International System of Units.
  • Mass, volume, density and temperature.
  • Pure substances, homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures.
  • Separation of mixtures: sieving, decanting, filtering and distilling.
  • The particle theory. Atoms, molecules and crystals.
  • Chemical elements. The Periodic Table. Chemical symbols, atomic number, atomic mass.
  • Chemical compounds. Molecular formulas and structural representations of molecules.
  • The properties of solids, liquids and gases explained through the particle theory.
  • The changes of state explained through the particle theory.
  • Expansion and contraction by heat explained through the particle theory.
3. The Atmosphere and the Weather
  • Origin, evolution and composition of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Structure of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Air pressure.
  • Weather: types of clouds, cyclones, anticyclones, wind and precipitations.
4. The Water and the Hydrosphere
  • The water in the Earth: occurrence, water bodies, natural aqueous mixtures vs. distilled water, continental waters vs. marine waters.
  • The water cycle and its reservoirs.
  • Seawater movements.
  • The molecule of water.
  • The density of water.
  • Water and life: the roles of water in living beings and the adaptations of living beings with regards to water.
5. The Earth's Crust, the Rocks and the Minerals
  • Structure of the Geosphere.
  • Earth's crust: types and composition.
  • Minerals: concept, occurrence and properties.
  • Rocks: rock cycle, main types and uses.
6. Organization of Living Matter
  • Vital functions.
  • Bioelements and biomolecules.
  • Cells: structure, main types, vital functions, discovery; the cellular theory; unicellular and multicellular beings.
  • Levels of organisation in multicellular beings.
  • Classification of living beings: morphological criteria vs. kinship; the five kingdoms; taxonomical categories.
7. Prokaryotes, Protozoa, Algae and Fungi
  • Prokaryotes: bacteria: occurrence, diversity (ecology, nutrition), cyanbacteria, how they affect human life.
  • Protozoa: common features, differences with animals; diversity.
  • Algae: common features, differences with plants; diversity.
  • Fungi: common features, differences with plants and animals; diversity; classification; anatomy of mushrooms; common mushrooms.
8. The Plant Kingdom
  • Common features.
  • Main morphological types.
  • Main organs.
  • Main groups: bryophytes, pterydophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  • Nutrition: photosynthesis vs. respiration; role in the carbon cycle.
  • Basic interaction mechanisms.
  • Reproduction in angiosperms.
9. The Animal Kingdom
  • Common features.
  • Nutrition: type, systems of organs involved, role in the carbon cycle.
  • Basic interaction mechanisms.
  • Kinds of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
  • Main groups of invertebrates: sponges, cnidarians, annelids, molluscs, arthropods and equinoderms.
  • Main groups of vertebrates: fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

ESO 2. Science

1. Forces and Movements
  • Forces: concept and measurement.
  • Effects of forces: deformations and changes in movement. Driving force and force of friction.
  • The gravitational force; mass vs. weight.
  • Changes of position. Speed and distance/time graphs. Acceleration and speed/time graphs.
2. Energy
  • Concepts of work and energy.
  • Types of material systems with regards to the exchanges of energy and matter.
  • Forms of energy: kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical, electric, nuclear, heat, light.
  • Transfers and transformations of energy.
  • Changes caused by transfers of energy; reversible and irreversible changes.
  • Energy in human societies: foods, fossil fuels, nuclear, biomass, aeolian, hydraulic, solar.
  • Types of power plants.
3. Heat and Temperature
  • Temperature vs. heat.
  • Measuring temperature.
  • Transmission of heat by conduction; conductors vs. insulators.
  • Transmission of heat by convection; convection in the troposphere; convection in the asthenosphere.
  • Transmission of heat by radiation.
4. Light
  • Light is the transmission of EM waves.
  • Transmission of light: speed and pathway.
  • Behaviour of materials with regards to light: transparent, translucent and opaque.
  • Reflection and refraction of light.
5. Sound
  • Sound is the transmission of mechanical waves.
  • The properties of sound: loudness and pitch.
  • Measuring sound.
  • The transmission of sound: speed, reflections.
6. Chemical Changes
  • Physical changes vs. chemical changes.
  • Chemical equations. Reactants vs. products.
  • Conservation of mass in chemical reactions: the law of constant proportions; balancing chemical equations.
  • Energy changes during chemical reactions.
  • Simple chemical reactions: metals with non-metals, oxidation, combustion, formation of acids, formation of salts.
7. Cells and Vital Functions
  • Structure and function of the main organic and inorganic biomolecules.
  • Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions.
  • Cellular nutrition. Anabolism and catabolism. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration.
  • Cellular interaction: examples from the five kingdoms.
  • Cellular reproduction: main general types.
  • The vital functions under the scope of the process of natural selection.
8. Nutrition in Living Beings
  • The role of nutrition in the living beings.
  • Types of nutrition in living beings: heterotrophs vs. autotrophs; phototrophs vs. chemotrophs.
  • Animal nutrition (I): the digestive process.
  • Animal nutrition (II): the digestive systems.
  • Animal nutrition (III): the respiratory mechanisms.
  • Animal nutrition (IV): the circulatory systems.
  • Animal nutrition (V): the excretory systems.
  • Nutrition in fungi.
  • Nutrition in plants and algae.
9. Interaction and Coordination in Living Beings
  • The role of interaction in the living beings.
  • Interaction in animals (I): stimuli and receptors.
  • Interaction in animals (II): the need of a coordination process; the nervous systems.
  • Interaction in animals (III): effectors.
  • Interaction in plants: tropisms and nastics.
10. Reproduction in Living Beings
  • The role of reproduction in the living beings.
  • Types of reproduction.
  • Asexual reproduction in animals. Examples.
  • Sexual reproduction in animals. Embryonic development.
  • Asexual reproduction in plants. Examples.
  • Sexual reproduction in plants. The flower.
11. The Ecosphere and the Ecosystems
  • Why is there Life on Earth.
  • Biomes: concept, main types on Earth.
  • Ecosystems: concept and components.
  • Habitats and ecological niches.
  • Land ecosystems: main types and features. The formation of soil.
  • Aquatic ecosystems: main types and features.
  • Anthropogenic ecosystems: main types and features.
  • Feeding interactions: producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
  • Other biotic interactions: interspecific and intraspecific.
  • Major human influences in the ecosystems.

ESO 3. Biology and Geology

1. Organization of Living Matter
  • Levels of organisation in living beings: overview.
  • Bioelements.
  • Biomolecules: organic and inorganic; main types; their role in the human being.
  • Cells: unicellular and multicellular beings; eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and organisms; components (and their functions) of prokaryotic, plant and animal cells.
  • Overview of the cell activity: nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
  • Supracellular levels of organisation: thalluses, tissues, organs, systems of organs, apparatuses.
2. Nutrition in Humans
  • The meaning of nutrition in living beings: nutrition as an exchange of matter and energy. Humans as heterotrophs.
  • Overview of the nutrition in humans; organ systems involved (digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system).
  • The digestive system anatomy: alimentary canal and accessory glands.
  • Stages of the digestive system work: ingestion, digestion (types, stages, enzymes), absorption and elimination.
  • Ventilation and respiration as contributing processes to human nutrition.
  • The respiratory system anatomy: respiratory pathways, lungs, ribcage.
  • The respiratory system physiology: breathing movements, gas exchange, breathing rhythm control.
  • Components of the blood: plasma and blood cells (types and functions).
  • The cardiovascular system: blood vessels (types and roles); the heart (structure and function); cardiovascular circuits.
  • Overview of the lymphatic system.
  • The urinary system: its role in homeostasis and waste disposal; structure and function of the kidney; structure and function of the nephrons; composition of the urine as compared to the blood.
  • The sweat glands: their role in homeostasis and waste disposal; composition of the sweat as compared to the blood.
  • Types of nutrients.
  • Types of foods.
  • Balanced diets; basal metabolic rates.
  • Specific diets: for weight management, for sports, for longevity.
  • Food conservation, manipulation and marketing.
  • Food production enhancement methods and their consequences: fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, intensive farming, GM foods.
3. Interaction in Humans
  • The meaning of interaction and coordination in multicellular beings.
  • Interaction and coordination in humans: stages involved (from stimuli to receptors); organ systems involved (receptors, nervous system, endocrine system and motor apparatus).
  • Receptors: internal and external; types according to the stimuli detected, how the eye works; how the ear works; the skin as a receptor.
  • The nervous tissue: neurones (and their structure) and glial cells, nerves, nerve impulse, synapse, neurotransmitters.
  • The nervous system: structure, main organs (and their functions), types of nerves, types of nervous circuits.
  • The endocrine system: endocrine glands, hormones (main kinds and their effects), target organs and target cells, stages and types of endocrine coordination, endocrine glands as effectors.
  • Homeostasis: how the human body controls the internal temperature and the levels of fluids and metabolites.
  • The motor apparatus: main muscles and bones; the muscles as effectors.
4. Reproduction in Humans
  • Overall view of the process of reproduction in humans. Key concepts: gonads, gametes, fertilisation, zygote, embryo, fetus, pregnancy, childbirth.
  • Sexual characteristics: primary and secondary. Puberty.
  • Structure of the male and female reproductive systems.
  • Features of the male and female gametes.
  • The menstrual cycle.
  • The reproductive process: fertilisation, implantation, fetal development and childbirth.
  • Hormonal control of the reproduction related activity (gametogenesis, menstrual cycle and nursing).
  • Contraception.
  • Assisted reproduction.
5. Health and Disease
  • Concepts of health and disease.
  • General types of diseases: infectious, hereditary, nutritional, chronic, terminal…
  • Microbial diseases.
  • Infectious diseases occurrence: epidemics and pandemics.
  • Fighting infectious diseases: the immune system, vaccination, antibiotics.
  • Malnutrition, eating disorders and digestive system related diseases.
  • Respiratory system related diseases.
  • Circulatory system related diseases.
  • Good habits to keep a healthy heart.
  • Urinary system related diseases.
  • Degenerative nervous diseases.
  • Drug addictions.
  • Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.
  • Sensory organs related diseases.
  • Endocrine system related diseases.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Cancer.
6. Minerals
  • Organic matter vs. inorganic matter. Geochemical elements.
  • Crystalline matter vs. amorphous matter. Crystals vs. glasses. Minerals vs. mineraloids.
  • Physical properties of the minerals: crystal structure, growth habit, density, hardness, tenacity, cleavage, lustre, colour, streak, others.
  • Classification of the minerals. Some important minerals and their physical properties.
  • Obtaining minerals. Beds and mines.
  • Uses of the minerals. Main metallic ores. Main gemstones.
7. Rocks
  • Concept of rock and how it relates to the concept of mineral.
  • Basic properties of the rocks: structure, mineral composition and age.
  • Sedimentary rocks: formation process, occurrence, strata, major types and main examples.
  • The formation of coal and petroleum.
  • Igneous rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
  • Metamorphic rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
  • The rock cycle.
  • Rocks as resources for human societies.
  • Major lithological units in Spain.

ESO 4. Biology and Geology

1. Cellular Functions
  • The biological meaning of the cellular nutrition, reproduction and interaction.
  • Cellular nutrition (I): membrane transport of substances.
  • Cellular nutrition (II): enzymes.
  • Cellular nutrition (III): the metabolism; anabolism and catabolism in autotrophic and heterotrophic beings.
  • Cellular reproduction (I): the cell nucleus: DNA, chromatin, chromosomes; haploid and diploid cells.
  • Cellular reproduction (II): the cell cycle.
  • Cellular reproduction (III): cancer.
  • Cellular reproduction (IV): the stages of mitosis; its meaning and role in eukaryotic cells.
  • Cellular reproduction (V): meiosis: main events; its meaning and role in eukaryotes' gametogenesis.
  • Cellular interaction: biological meaning and examples in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
2. Heredity and Transmission
  • Mendelian inheritance. Dominance, codominance and incomplete dominance.
  • The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Chromosomes, loci and alleles.
  • The inheritance of sex. Heredity linked to sex; some common diseases.
  • Polygenic and polyallelic inheritance.
  • Mutations. Causes, types and results.
  • The Human Genome Project: benefits and concerns.
  • Genetic testing: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
  • Genetic manipulation. Basic techniques. Most significant current applications (GM food, gene therapy): benefits and concerns.
  • Cloning. Nuclear transfer. Benefits and concerns.
  • Stem cells: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
3. The Evolution of Living Matter
  • Ideas on the origin and transmutation of species across time. The advent of the evolutionary thought (common descent and transmutation of species).
  • Signs of evolution: adaptive radiation, adaptive convergence, fossil series, geographical distribution of fossils, biochemical similarities.
  • Lamarck's mechanism of evolutionary change.
  • Darwin and Wallace's mechanism of evolutionary change: evolution by natural selection driven by the environment.
  • Genetics and evolution: mutation, recombination, natural selection of alleles and genetic drift.
  • Evolution by natural selection in action: some examples.
  • Main outcomes of the evolution by natural selection: adaptation, extinction, coevolution and speciation.
4. Natural History of the Earth
  • Fossils: types, occurrence, significance.
  • Historical ideas on the age of the Earth. Principles and procedures that enable to reconstruct the History of the Earth. Relative and absolute dating techniques.
  • The geologic time. Main geochronologic units.
  • Main geological and biological events along the history of the Earth.
  • The evolution of the human lineage.
5. Plant Physiology
  • Plant nutrition: absorption and transport of nutrients, transpiration, photosynthesis, respiration.
  • Plant reproduction: the flower, pollination, fertilization, seed dispersal, germination.
  • Plant interaction: plant hormones and growth.
6. Dynamics of Ecosystems
  • Ecosystems: concept, components. The Ecosphere.
  • Ecological factors; conditions and resources. Limiting factors. Tolerance curves. Ecological niche. Habitat.
  • Ecological factors in land ecosystems.
  • Ecological factors in aquatic ecosystems.
  • Ecological succession.
  • Biotic interactions: intraspecific and interspecific interactions.
  • Population growth. Positive and negative feedback in the interspecific interactions. Plagues and their control.
  • Feeding interactions: flow of energy and matter in the ecosystems; producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
  • Biogeochemical cycles.
  • Atmospheric pollution: the greenhouse effect and the global warming; the slimming of the ozone layer; acid precipitations.
  • Water consumption: water treatment and sewage treatment.
  • Water pollution: fertilisers, industrial pollutants, thermal pollution.
  • Other major human influences in the ecosystems.
7. The Earth's Internal Energy
  • The internal heat of the Earth as the cause behind the internal geomorphological changes.
  • Basic internal geomorphological processes: volcanism and seismicity: elements and main features.
  • The Continental Drift theory.
  • The tectonic plates: concept, movement, types and main plates.
  • Divergent tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
  • Convergent tectonic boundaries: types, causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
  • Transform tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
  • Igneous rocks.
  • Metamorphic rocks.
  • Geological risks related to the internal activity of the Earth: risk areas; preventing and measuring earthquakes.
8. The Earth's External Energy
  • The external geomorphological changes vs. the internal geomorphological changes: paces and examples.
  • The Sun and the gravity as the causes behind the external geomorphological agents. The water cycle as an example.
  • The external geomorphological processes: weathering, erosion, transport and sedimentation.
  • Chemical weathering.
  • Geomorphological action of the changes of temperature. Freeze-thaw weathering.
  • Geomorphological action of the wind. Occurrence, aeolian landscapes.
  • Geomorphological action of the superficial continental waters. Types of superficial continental bodies. The geomorphological processes in the sections of a river. Glacial vs. fluvial landscapes.
  • Geomorphological action of the subterranean continental waters. Karstic landscapes.
  • Geomorphological action of the sea. Seawater movements. Landscapes carved by the sea movements.
  • The formation of soils.
  • The formation of sedimentary rocks. Strata.
  • Fossilisation.